My approach to this question was to analyse data from around 50 current job advertisements in the UK and the US. I looked at the required skills and compared these for data analysts and data scientists.
Summary of findings - differences between data analysts and data scientists
Data Analysts and Data Scientists have similar core skill sets but data scientists require more skills than data analysts. While the skill sets are similar, job roles are less so. Data analyst roles may focus on data quality and obtaining data, possibly generating reports. Data science roles may require more programming skills and will almost certainly involve working with big data rather than just data. The data science roles focus on using the data whereas data analyst roles may focus more on describing/summarising the data. To get the best data science jobs you may need a higher level degree.
Other roles that can be similar are Business Intelligence Developer, data quality engineer and data engineer, these may be more technical and may require knowledge of ETL and data warehousing as well as BI tools such as Tableau.